Topic: Virtual Smart Card Architecture
The Virtual Smart Card Architecture includes pcsc-relay, a program that relays an arbitrary smart card on the NFC layer. pcsc-relay works similar to nfc-relay-picc, but it does not require placing the real smart card on a libnfc device. Instead it grabs a smart card via the PC/SC service.
This way you can relay (even a contact based) smart card in a smart card reader that only comes with a proprietary driver via NFC. But you could also use a software emulated smart card to connect to a real contactless smart card reader. Such a virtual smart card is also provided by the Virtual Smart Card Architecture. An other possibility is to relay a smart card between two computers and still appear valid in front of a certified contactless smart card reader. The latter has been demonstrated with the new German identity card, neuer Personalausweis (nPA).